Recent publications – April 14, 2009

Effects of exercise training on health status in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial.
Flynn KE, Piña IL, Whellan DJ, Lin L, Blumenthal JA, Ellis SJ, Fine LJ, Howlett JG, Keteyian SJ, Kitzman DW, Kraus WE, Miller NH, Schulman KA, Spertus JA, O’Connor CM, Weinfurt KP.
JAMA. 2009 Apr 8;301(14):1451-9.

Multicenter, randomized controlled trial among 2331 medically stable outpatients with heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less. Patients were randomized from April 2003 through February 2007. Exercise training conferred modest but statistically significant improvements in self-reported health status compared with usual care without training. Improvements occurred early and persisted over time.


Gender-Dependent Impairment of Cardiac Action Potential Conduction in Type 1 Diabetic Rats.
Shimoni Y, Emmett T, Schmidt R, Nygren A, Kargacin GJ.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009 Mar 13.

Heart and vascular disease are serious complications of untreated diabetes, however females tend to be less at risk than males. This study describes mechanisms that may underlie development of cardiac arrhythmias in diabetes. These arrhythmias result from disruption of the normal patterns of conduction of the electrical wave in the heart. This disruption is less severe in diabetic females, presumably due to protective actions of estrogen.

Yakhin Shimoni:


Determination of apparent calcium affinity for endogenously expressed human sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase isoform, SERCA3.
Chandrasekera PC, Kargacin ME, Deans JP, Lytton J.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009 Feb 18.

Controlling calcium in cells of the body is essential to almost all aspects of life. These studies highlight the distinct properties of a specialized calcium transport protein that is responsible for maintaining calcium balance to allow normal functioning of vascular endothelial cells, among other specialized cells of the body.

Jonathan Lytton:


Comparison of new measures of vascular function to flow-mediated dilation as a measure of cardiovascular risk factors.
Philpott AC, Lonn EM, Title LM, Verma S, Buithieu J, Charbonneau F, Anderson TJ.
Am J Cardiol 2009 (in press).

This paper evaluated various measures of blood vessel health. It demonstrated that a measure of the increase in blood velocity in the forearm in response to occluding blood flow for 5 minutes is closely associated with usual risk factors. This measurement may serve as a useful marker of the risk of heart attacks and strokes in individuals at risk of heart disease.

Myosin, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase: expression and function in asthma.
R. Léguillette, M. Laviolette, C. Bergeron, N. B. Zitouni, P. Kogut, J. Solway, L. Kashmar, Q. Hamid, A.-M. Lauzon.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2009; 179 (3): 194-204

An excessive decrease in airway luminal area via bronchoconstriction is one of the final pathways to asthma. However, very little is understood about the molecular mechanics of smooth muscle in airway hyper-responsiveness and asthma. Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyper-responsiveness observed in asthma.



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